MRI scans from a dementia patient

Portable dementia test could help diagnose disease five years earlier

Image credit: Dreamstime

A non-invasive portable dementia test has been developed that could help to improve the rates of early detection and treatment.

The ‘Fastball’ test measures patients’ brain waves whilst they watch a series of flashing images displayed on a screen.

Developed by researchers from the universities of Bath and Bristol, the technology requires users to wear an electroencephalogram (EEG) headset, which is linked to a computer for analysis.

Previous research has shown Fastball to be highly effective at picking up subtle changes in brain waves which occur when a person remembers an image. They have demonstrated that this response changes as a person develops dementia, offering hope as a breakthrough for early diagnosis.

Dementia is typically diagnosed too late, at a point at which the disease has damaged the brain beyond repair. This can be up to 20 years after the disease first started to develop.

Current diagnosis often relies on a series of subjective questions to test a person’s memory, which is limited and can be impacted by a person’s education, language skills or nervousness.

Fastball however, is passive, which means the person doing the test does not need to understand the task or be aware of their memory response. It is also portable, meaning that diagnoses in the future could be carried out anywhere, including in a patient’s home.

By testing more people earlier and more regularly, the team believes it could help lower the age of diagnosis by up to five years in the short-term and by more in the future. Recent findings from Alzheimer’s Research UK suggested that many people would want to know if they will develop Alzheimer’s in the future, even if they don’t yet have symptoms.

As part of a five-year project, the team will test Fastball on more than 1000 patients in a working dementia clinic at Southmead Hospital in Bristol. This represents the biggest study of any kind to use EEG to screen for Alzheimer’s disease with a goal to enrol a diverse patient population.

Dr George Stothart is the project co-lead and a cognitive neuroscientist based at the University of Bath. He said: “Nearly all of us will know someone, or be caring for someone, with dementia. The costs to families, and to the NHS is enormous and is set to rise as our population ages. Yet, dementia is currently diagnosed too late – typically up to 20 years after the disease has first begun.

“Quicker, more accurate ways to diagnose dementia are greatly needed so that patients can get treatments earlier and families can plan better for the future, which is why we are so excited for the potential of Fastball EEG and the development of our work through this significant new funding and the collaborations it will enable.”

Dr Liz Coulthard, associate professor in dementia neurology at the University of Bristol added: “Patients can wait a long time for diagnosis and some of our current tests can be inaccurate and sometimes stressful for them. A quick, easy-to-administer memory test, like Fastball, could transform a patient’s journey to diagnosis.

“As we adopt new treatments into clinical practice, we will need to scale-up our ability to diagnose people at an early stage of Alzheimer’s and avoid language barriers. Fastball offers the opportunity to improve Alzheimer’s diagnosis equitably.”

Sign up to the E&T News e-mail to get great stories like this delivered to your inbox every day.

Recent articles