India’s 370 planned coal plants will breach Paris Agreement commitments, study says
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India’s climate change commitments under the Paris Agreement will not be met if it goes ahead with the planned construction of nearly 370 coal-fired power plants, according to a new study.
“India is facing a dilemma of its own making,” said co-author of the study Steven Davis, associate professor at the University of California Irvine (UCI). “The country has vowed to curtail its use of fossil fuels in electricity generation, but it has also put itself on a path to building hundreds of coal-burning power plants to feed its growing industrial economy.”
Further, by developing all of the planned coal-fired capacity, India would boost the share of fossil fuels in its energy budget by 123 per cent. If the nation also met its goal to produce at least 40 per cent of its power from non-fossil sources by 2030, the total power being generated would greatly exceed its own projected future electricity demand.
India has pledged to the international community to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide released per unit of gross domestic product by as much as 35 per cent from 2005 levels by 2030 and to increase renewable energy in its power grids.
It is making some headway towards that goal. In November, India finished constructing the largest solar farm in the world in the Southern state of Tamil Nadu covering a 2,500 acre site.
However, the construction of 65 gigawatts’ worth of coal-burning generation facilities, with an additional 178 gigawatts in the planning stages, would make it nearly impossible for India to fulfil those climate promises, the researchers said.
“In looking closely at all of India’s active coal plant proposals, we found they are already incompatible with the country’s international climate commitments and are simply unneeded,” said Christine Shearer, the study’s lead author and a senior researcher with CoalSwarm, which collates studies on the fossil fuel.
“These plants therefore risk either locking out the country’s renewable electricity goals or becoming stranded assets operating well below optimal rates and leading to financial losses.”
Davis added: “We’ve done calculations to figure out that India’s Paris pledges might be met if it built these plants and only ran them 40 per cent of the time, but that’d be a colossal waste of money and, once built, there’d be huge incentives to run the plants more despite the nation’s contrary climate goals.”
India relies heavily on coal: 70 per cent of the country’s power comes from plants burning the fuel. Due to its historically low cost and accessibility (India has large domestic coal reserves), it’s seen as furthering India’s quest to become a manufacturing and economic powerhouse and as a way to provide electricity to the roughly 300 million people in the nation who don’t have it.
The UCI and CoalSwarm researchers stressed that there are significant downsides to the fossil fuel habit. In addition to spewing harmful soot and other types of air pollution, coal-burning power plants are the largest source of carbon dioxide on Earth, accounting for 41 per cent of all CO2 emissions in 2015. Choices that individual countries make in regard to their energy mix have planet-wide consequences.
“India’s proposed coal plants will almost single-handedly jeopardize the internationally agreed-upon climate target of avoiding more than 1.5 degrees Celsius of mean global warming,” Davis said.
The US is considering pulling out of the Paris Agreement under President Donald Trump, who has attempted to dismantle some of the Obama-era climate change regulations. China, on the other hand, has reasserted its commitment despite US antipathy.