When world leaders meet in Copenhagen in December to thrash out the replacement for the Kyoto Protocol, the actions of emerging nations are seen as key to its success. In the first part of our extensive coverage before the summit, we focus on Brazil.
Brazil's National Plan on Climate Change (PNMC) was developed by the country's Inter-ministerial Committee on Climate Change (CIM) in December 2008.
To identify, plan, and coordinate the actions and measures that can be taken to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Brazil, as well as those necessary for the adaptation of society to the impacts of climate change.
Process for development
President Luiz Inacio LULA da Silva initiated PNMC in April 2007 on the recommendation of the Ministry of Environment and Brazilian Forum on Climate Change. In November 2007, the President appointed CIM to oversee the plan. CIM surveyed ministries to identify actions that could be incorporated and solicited input through a stakeholder consultation process. Initial version released September 2008; criticised for lack of clear goals.
GHG emissions scenario framing plan
Cites the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change as scientific consensus that anthropogenic climate change is occurring. Presents national emissions data from 1994. States that Brazil has contributed little to the problem. Brazil will not wait for others to act to mitigate climate change, and characterises its actions as ambitious relative to others.
Overview and scope
Covers energy (renewable/clean energy, biofuels, consumption reduction, oil and gas); forests and agriculture (ecosystem conservation, agriculture and ranching, strengthening sinks); and other sectors (industry, waste, transport, and health). Plan lists 32 activities in implementation and 13 activities in the 'conception phase'.
The PNMC establishes goals along two themes - increasing institutional, managerial and legislative capacity for adaptation and promoting direct action-steps for addressing impacts, risks and vulnerabilities. Identifies sectors in need of adaptation and proposes short- and long-term strategies.
Energy generation use
Add 7,000MW of renewable energy from bagasse cogeneration, mini-hydro, and wind; increase bagasse cogeneration to 136TWh (11.4 per cent of energy mix); add 34,460MWh from hydro
Solar water heating to reduce energy needs by 2,200GWh/year
Increase share of rail and water transport; improve mass transit, bicycling, and river cargo
Reduce deforestation by 40 per cent by 2009, and an additional 30 per cent by 2013 and 2017; eliminate illegal deforestation
Complete a carbon stock inventory and national public forest registry
Eliminate net loss of forest cover including by doubling area of forest plantation to 11 million ha by 2020, and increasing annual planting
Recuperation of methane from landfills
Increase urban solid waste recycling by 20 per cent by 2015