The E&T white paper programme
A collection of authoritative technical product reports and white papers, providing solutions and benefits and enabling you to increase your knowledge across a range of engineering and technology disciplines.
For further information or to submit a product report or white paper of your own for consideration in the programme, please e-mail us.
Impact of C2C operation on DG capacity in HV networks
Electricity North West’s Capacity to Customers (C2C) project is trialling a combination of new automation technology, non-conventional network operational practices and commercial demand-side response (DSR) contracts to release inherent spare capacity on the high voltage electricity network. These changes allow the company to increase demand and generation connections on a selection of trial circuits.
This paper documents work undertaken by the University of Strathclyde to quantify the ability of C2C network operation to accommodate additional distributed generation capacity. This has been achieved using simulation models based upon actual system data from a representative proportion of the C2C trial circuits.
AUTOSAR goes multi-core - the safe way
Two major topics are currently at the centre of software development activities for automotive ECUs: Firstly, the trend in computer architecture towards multicore processors and secondly the safety standards demanded by ISO 26262.
Each of these topics is already complex enough in its own right. Read this paper to find out what the consequences of the two together will be.
Design considerations for the cosmetics of injection moulded plastic parts
This white paper discussed several factors affecting cosmetic appearance, the relationship between the aesthetics and functionality of the part, the interactions between those factors and steps the designer can take to improve final appearance.
Materials matter: the material selecting process
Material selection can be a guessing game. This paper will guide you through the daunting task of determining performance parameters of different thermoplastic materials and selecting the best resin for your application. You will be able to learn more about:
- Tools for quantitative analysis of a part.
- Tools for determining loads, stresses, strains and environments.
- Tools to make an optimal material decision based on the analysis.
Integrated powertrain control with Maple and MapleSim: optimal engine operating points
This whitepaper discusses a method of determining an optimal set of operating points for an internal combustion engine based on the BSFC.
The described approach is general and may be extended to include additional engine information such as NOx emissions data. Such additional information can be a part of the weighted cost equation used within the optimization process.
Download the paper and learn more about:
- How to determine optimal operating points for an internal combustion engine
- How to operate at the most effective fuel to power ratio defined by the BSFC
- Techniques to include additional engine characteristics such as emissions data in the optimization
Prototyping and testing CANopen systems: how to reach goals with minimum effort
CANopen established itself as a standard for cost-effective and flexible networking of components in numerous application fields ranging from industrial automation to commercial vehicles. This paper covers the benefits of CANopen including:
- Efficient and quick planning of complete CANopen networks as well as devices
- Generation of CANopen network simulation by few clicks
- Comparison of the data with programming environment for programmable devices and masters, IEC61131, ASAM-GDI
- Easy observation of the data traffic and comprehensive network analysis
- Reliable testing of data communications – from simple interactive tests to systematic automated testing
Getting existing projects through IEC61508
The drive for improving the safety of embedded systems is now well advanced in the automotive world with the release of ISO26262 which is essentially the automotive version of IEC61508.
This paper looks at the issues that have to be addressed when trying to apply IEC61508 SIL2 or 3 to an existing product from the software point of view.
Antenna simulation: how to optimise your design
Antennas are virtually everywhere. From commercial applications such as smartphones, RFID tags, and wireless printers, to defense applications such as phased array antennas, to provide integrated ground based communication systems. Electromagnetic simulation is a highly valuable tool in antenna design and platform integration. It provides the designer with the ability to virtually design and evaluate ‘what if’ scenarios as well as verify the final manufactured design. This paper describes antenna design and simulation with an industry leading 3D electromagnetic simulation tool.
Package and board power integrity design
In Printed Circuit Board and IC Package design, it is a huge challenge to stay within the shrinking voltage noise limits and keep pace with increasing current demand. Typically, to address these issues, design engineers have to reduce the power delivery network (PDN) impedance. In redesigning PDNs, problems become even more complex, as the required PDN impedance reduces to the order of milliohms and, in some cases, microohms. Therefore, efficient power integrity tools are required.
Read this paper and learn more about power integrity tools plus:
- Effective Power Delivery Network (PDN) design through SI/PI simulation.
- Power integrity design methodology
- Power integrity optimization
Forget connectivity: M2M is all about device and data management
Explore how the bigger picture of the Internet of Things (IoT) and Machine to Machine (M2M) systems fit together.
This white paper looks at the characteristics needed from platforms to address issues including Application management, Data management, security and resilience to name but a few and to construct M2M systems in a manner that fits in with the IoT vision.
From feature-definition to service-bay: taking advance engineering design data beyond the ‘systems-Vee’
Highly complex interconnected systems in road vehicles delivering ‘surprise and delight’ features to customers means they are potentially difficult to diagnose if faults occur in service.
This complexity has led to development of design models that have the capability to provide a new source of information to the service-bay, reusing original vehicle design data.
The future of railway wireless networks
New wireless data technologies now make it possible to create train communications systems that are as advanced as the electric, maglev, and hydrail locomotives that are powering the train systems of the future.
This paper covers the important issues on:
- New demands on railway communications systems
- Benefits of WLAN for the rail industry
- Challenges of train-to-ground communications
Five key requirements of railway trackside backbone networks
This white paper highlights the major requirements for today's rail wayside backbone networks in terms of network segregation, network management, fibre links, network expansion and connectivity with legacy devices.
Key highlights include:
- Five key requirements of railway trackside backbone networks including: Vital and non-vital network segregation.
- Network management software.
- Reliable and self-healing fibre links.
Five future challenges for industrial ethernet switches
Research shows industry-wide acceptance of industrial Ethernet technology, but this also poses hidden threats to industrial network availability resulting from inherent challenges found in field level environments.
Understand these new challenges including:
- Industrial Ethernet switch reliability and redundancy
- Industrial Ethernet switch bandwidth and future proofing
- Industrial Ethernet switch security and manageability
Windows XP, the end of an era: are you protected?
Find out how the removal of Windows XP could affect you and your company and how Amplicon can assist with the transition to a secure operating system with minimal upheaval.
This white paper will help you understand:
- Security concerns with continuing with XP
- Is embedded an option to you?
- How Amplicon can assist moving forward
Capacity to Customers (C2C) carbon impact assessment
Capacity to Customers (C2C) is one of the projects supported by the OfGEM Low Carbon Networks Fund to explore new ways of delivering a secure and affordable low carbon electricity system. The C2C project explores one way of providing greater capacity from existing distribution assets.
Electricity North West pilot studies suggest that C2C will realise a net reduction in carbon emissions. This whitepaper introduces the techniques that will be used to measure this and reviews current research on the carbon impact of electricity networks.
Fast measurement and reprogramming with CAN-FD
Building on the robustness of standard CAN.
This white paper covers everything you need to know about the latest in-vehicle network, CAN-FD. It is based on the standard CAN specification, but extends the baud rate and data packet length to increase data throughput.
Find out about the advantages for measuring and reprogramming when using CAN-FD including:
- Increasing the data traffic on an in-vehicle network.
- Increasing re-flashing times and its limits.
Designing for mouldability (volume 2): undercuts and through-holes
- How to get best results from rapid injection moulding
- Side-action cams and sliding shutoffs
- Pickouts and bumpoffs
Battery design innovation: it’s all about the mathematics!
Improve your commercial competitiveness by reading this white paper covering:
- Benefits of math based modelling techniques
- Hybrid electric and electric vehicles high fidelity models
- Research projects using MapleSim
- Advantages of using MapleSim for multi-domain modelling
How are mixed-signal ASICs changing the face of industrial controllers?
An in-depth insight into ASICs, the cost effective alternative to traditional electronic circuits.
It’s not simply a question of implementing an existing PCB design. Find out the techniques required to improve your ASIC design:
- Why ASIC?
- New applications explained
- The benefits of ASIC
Predictive maintenance for dummies e-book
Put the benefits into practice! Grasp the concepts of predictive maintenance and put the benefits to use. Lean how to reduce operational costs, garner insights from raw data and gain a competitive advantage.
Read how to start saving your company money, resources and time by:
- Identifying typical asset applications
- Optimizing process performance & employee productivity
- Discovering how technologies work together.
- Ten steps to get started with PdM
Designing for mouldability, volume one
How to get the best possible results with injection moulding. This quick-reference, 16-page guide for rapid injection moulding shows you how to get the best possible results covering applications, bosses, wall thickness, draft, ribs, pick-outs.
A study on factory ergonomics
Every year more than 7.5 m working days are lost to British industry due to poorly designed workstations. Learn how you can improve productivity, quality and employee health with the application of ergonomic principles.
From diagnostic requirements to communication
This paper investigates the development of diagnostic specifications for multiple purposes with a single, integrated tool chain including:
- Relationships between ODX, AUTOSAR ECU configurations and ‘traditional’ requirements
- Stages in development of modern ECU diagnostics
- Process and tool requirements to deliver ‘2’
The evolution of digital prototyping
To seriously compete in the manufacturing environment, manufacturers must improve the way they design, develop, and sell products. Digital prototyping has evolved to meet these needs. It is now very accessible due to reduced solution cost and complexity with use of CAD software.
12 key considerations in enclosure thermal design
Learn how CFD is used to optimize the cooling of your enclosure/system designs and the importance of selecting the right components and placements including:
- Select the right fan size and type
- Optimize fan and vent placement
- Improved design in cooling intelligence
Advanced symbolic and numeric techniques for machine vibration analysis
The operational reliability of a rotary equipment train is dependent on the vibration of its components. Often, the only evidence of this vibration is gear noise or coupling wear.
This paper illustrates the development of sophisticated models for a highly refined, realistic vibration analysis environment to ensure system reliability.
- Learn to develop a 3D model for vibration analysis in MapleSim
- How to extract and manipulate system equations for vibration analysis
- Understand the concepts through an example of a simple ship driveline as a practical engineering problem.
Automation controllers that reduce deployment risk in machine design and improve performance
Find out how machine builders can reduce risks throughout the product development cycle using integrated automation solutions and increase the value of the finished product through:
- Innovative automation platforms that minimize risk
- Marriage of IT development tools & industrial automation
- Diagnostic and analytical tools addressing integration issues
ASIC design and development – the questions you need answered
There are many issues in an ASIC development and production project which impact the choice of partner and the costing and competitiveness of the final outcome.
Use this free template to help you reach the right balance between
• Unit costing
• Intellectual property.
Exploring how unified communication and collaboration transforms roles in manufacturing
This paper explores the realignment of the manufacturing sector around greater automation and talent-centred culture, and the resulting needs this creates related to communication and collaboration where the criteria for success is more dependent on human capital than machines.
AUTOSAR learns Ethernet
Ethernet is a new and yet old and familiar network technology that is making its way into vehicles. At first, it is just being used for diagnostic applications and intelligent charging of electric vehicles, but on-board Ethernet networks are now being implemented as well. This paper describes the properties and advantages of Ethernet and discusses the special aspects of integrating the technology in AUTOSAR.
Free specification guide to inclinometers, accelerometers and load cells
This informative guide outlines the key factors to consider when specifying inclinometers, accelerometers and force transducers. In part two you can find out how location, calibration and application influence the accuracy of inertial sensors and find examples of typical applications.
Fault restoration performance on HV rings as part of the Capacity to Customers project
Electricity North West’s Capacity to Customers (C2C) solution is a novel alternative to distribution network reinforcement that is expected to release untapped network capacity, reduce power losses, and defer (or even avoid) costly network reinforcement. This would be achieved via the automation of the normally open point (NOP), operation of the NOP to become normally closed (ie changing the configuration of the radial networks to rings), and procurement of demand response that would be called only during emergency conditions. This paper describes the position to date of the restoration performance following five faults that have occurred on designated Capacity to Customers (C2C) HV trial rings.
Capturing Big Data with M2M technology
An integrated M2M platform based on the proper building blocks is an essential element in the capture and analysis of Big Data.
Read this paper and find out how you ensure your system is truly flexible, scalable, and future proof.
The test revolution: get your design process right first time
When boards are heavily populated with BGAs, traditional debug and test methods are often unable to get to the root of the problem. The result is a waste of time, money and energy.
But there is a solution based on an existing standard that is helping design, development and test engineers speed up the design process and helping them get it right first time.
Prototyping processes: how to choose the best process for your project
Whether you're a newbie or an expert this white paper will help you choose the best process for your project. It's packed full of excellent information on strength, finish, material properties and more.
Easy-to-implement remote management solution for embedded platforms
Read this white paper and find out how the right open source solution can remove the high costs of remote management implementation while still retaining the essentials of a compliant OOB implementation.
Technical superiority in multi-domain physical modelling and simulation
Download this free paper and learn about the unique design characteristics of MapleSim, and how it bypasses the limitations of current modelling and simulation technology.
- What are the core advantages of model-based development?
- What are the limitations of the signal-flow modelling paradigm?
- What will I gain from physical modelling and symbolic computation?
Using internal crowdsourcing to gain a competitive advantage
Find out how to get started with internal crowdsourcing and tap directly into the creativity and ideas generated by your employees to further corporate innovation.
- Why are companies crowdsourcing internally?
- How do I get started?
- What are the best software solutions on the market?
Advanced measurements and simulation techniques for characterizing a 28 Gb/s transceiver
28Gb/s SERDES links are not trivial to validate and measure. The design and de-embedding of the test fixture path, along with the instrument set-up, play an important part in the ability of an oscilloscope to recover the undistorted waveform from a transmitter pumping out bits every 36ps.
The measurement and simulation techniques explored in this paper show that the previously existing barriers for using de-embedding have been eliminated. This enables a breakthrough toolset which high speed design engineers can confidently use for evaluating the quality of their product designs.
The automated test outlook 2013
The Automated Test Outlook is a comprehensive view of key technologies and methodologies impacting the test and measurement industry. We’ve found that one of the biggest challenges for test engineers and managers is staying current on technology trends. This paper highlights five major trends we believe will significantly influence automated test in the coming one to three years.
Efficient testing in aerospace electronics
The networking of line-replaceable units is integral to aerospace electronics. A new system is becoming a widely used tool for analysis, simulation, and testing of distributed, embedded systems. This paper highlights efficient ways to carry out simulation and testing of the Avionics system during different phases of development.
Real power density: 26A µmodule regulator keeps cool in tight spaces
It is not enough to simply squeeze a high power supply onto a board – the solution must also be carefully evaluated with regard to power loss and thermal resistance – two parameters that can make or break an otherwise good regulator. Discover how to easily create an efficient, compact, high performance PSU design in minimal time and without specialist knowledge.
Tyre pressure monitoring systems - past, present and future
This paper looks at the history of TPMS, the two competing systems, (direct and indirect), a comparison and use case implications for each; Factory fit and aftermarket requirements, auto- locate methods, energy harvesting challenges and future features and markets for TPMS and why an ASIC approach has become integral to the market leading solution.
Five key areas for accelerating automotive innovation
Just surviving in the automotive industry is challenging and requires rapid progress, but to stand out or gain market share— that takes something consistently special, year after year. This paper explores some key challenges companies face in creating smarter, more sophisticated automobiles along with how a more holistic approach can help accelerate innovation while improving quality.
Three imperatives for advancing product and systems development
Download this white paper and learn:
- How implementing an engineering solution platform can increase productivity and innovation
- Best practise in applying a systems thinking approach
- Why traceability across the lifecycle is important
Autodesk collaboration and data management for engineering
Data management and collaboration are an increased need in the engineering industry.
If you are handling large amounts of data, find out from this paper how software programmes that collate and manage data for use across the design lifecycle can make daily tasks less time consuming and workloads easier to manage.
Easier mental ray rendering for design workflows
This paper reviews common scenarios that design engineers face when rendering with mental ray. If you have a good understanding of Autodesk 3ds Max Design or basic notions of rendering and photorealistic rendering workflows, read on to find out how to demystify mental ray rendering and present it in a simple way.
How data centre infrastructure management software improves planning and cuts operational costs
Data centres can make a significant impact to your company’s bottom line by enabling the business to respond more quickly to market demands. Read this paper and discover, through a series of examples, how data centre infrastructure management software tools can simplify operational processes, cut costs, and speed up information delivery. Read the full description of this data centre white paper
Impact of hot and cold aisle containment on data centre temperature and efficiency
Both hot-air and cold-air containment can improve the predictability and efficiency of traditional data center cooling systems. While both approaches minimize the mixing of hot and cold air, there are practical differences in implementation and operation that have significant consequences on work environment conditions, PUE, and economizer mode hours. Read the full description of this hot and cold aisle containment white paper
Classification of data centre infrastructure management (DCIM) tools
Data centers today lack a formal system for classifying software management tools. As a result, confusion exists regarding which management systems are necessary and which are optional for secure and efficient data center operation. This paper divides the realm of data center management tools into four distinct subsets and compares the primary and secondary functions of key subsystems within these subsets. Read the full description of this DCIM white paper
Case study: Mitsubishi Motors Corporation
AUTOSAR ECU development process using DaVinci and MICROSAR from Vector
AUTOSAR is a group paving the way for the standardization of software platforms across Electronic Control Units (ECU). Its activities have gained momentum in recent years. In order to find out how AUTOSAR could best be applied to ECUs, Mitsubishi Motors joined forces with Mitsubishi Electric to test the development process and evaluate the tool chains relevant to the implementation of AUTOSAR software components on ECUs. For evaluation they used the EV-ECU of the i-MiEV electric car. Read the full description of this Autosar white paper
Analysis of electrical losses in meshed distribution system operation
This paper describes the effects of meshed distribution system operation on network electrical losses, within the Capacity to Customers (C2C) project led by Electricity North West. The losses have been computed for the circuits in configurations where the Normally Open Point is in both open and closed positions. This allows the benefits, from a losses perspective, of operation in a “closed ring” configuration to be quantified. The results generally illustrate that the benefits are marginal, but there are benefits to be gained.
Effective ways to transition from classic CAN to the improved CAN FD
Key learning points from this paper include:
- Find out about the next evolution of CAN, the CAN-FD Protocol (CAN with Flexible Data rate).
- Discover the challenges of embracing the enhanced CAN-FD format.
- Learn ways to transition from classic CAN to the improved CAN-FD.
Reliable embedded computing in rail and technology transfer
Diamond Point has very successfully introduced the latest embedded technology to the rail industry. The design data from 2,000 projects is being fed back into other industries such as military, other transport industries and medical. This paper is relevant to engineers across various industries.
- How to use embedded computers.
- Gain an insight into proven reliable systems.
- Learn how computer systems can be ruggedized.
Challenge of ethernet use in the automobile: flexible interfaces and software tools simplify ECU development
Already this year, Ethernet will be used as a system network in the first production vehicles. Therefore, the next step is to integrate Ethernet with established technologies in the automotive industry: CAN, FlexRay, LIN and MOST. Functional development tools exist for them, which make it easy for developers to analyze heterogeneous networks. On the Ethernet side, however, only standard tools from office communications exist, but they do not support the special physical layers and IP protocols of the automotive world. Therefore, development and test tools are urgently needed that can be used to analyze and test existing bus systems together with Ethernet networks. But what would be the exact requirements of these tools?
NVIDIA’s next-generation CUDA compute architecture: Kepler GK110
Read about the fastest, most efficient HPC architecture ever built. NVIDIA’s Kepler GK110 GPU raises the parallel computing bar considerably and will help solve the world’s most difficult computing problems. Comprising 7.1 billion transistors, Kelper GK110 is not only the fastest, but also the most architecturally complex microprocessor on the market.
A beginner’s guide to computational computing on the AMD embedded G-Series APU with OpenCL
This paper provides an introduction to the OpenCL framework and programming model to make efficient use of CPU and GPU computing resources. A very compact and efficient solution for OpenCL is the AMD Embedded G-Series APU which is also introduced in this paper. For those who can’t wait, the Whitepaper also contains an in-depth tutorial on working with AMD’s Accelerated Parallel Processing Software Development Kit (AMD APP SDK) including creating a first OpenCL program.
A guide on boundary-scan (JTAG) board-level design
This practical guide includes hints and tips for best practice in implementing boundary-scan infrastructures into circuit designs (schematics). Topics include recommended signal terminations, component selection, special measures for certain device types and optimisation for in-system device programming.
Clock generation and distribution for phased array radar
Coherent processing of multiple channels in Phased Array Radars requires low jitter clock generation and distribution with minimum skew to each channel. This circuit note presents key technologies to support such a requirement needed in next generation phased array Radar and Electronic Warfare systems.
Explore the benefits of new ADI circuits for designing smart industrial field Instruments
This circuit is a complete smart industrial, loop powered field instrument with 4 mA to 20 mA analog output and a highway addressable remote transducer (HART®) interface. It allows features such as remote calibration, fault interrogation, and transmission of process variables, which are necessary in applications such as temperature and pressure control within industry. This circuit has been compliance tested, verified, and registered by the HART Communication Foundation (HCF), providing circuit designers with a high level of confidence using one or all of the components in the circuit.
Data acquisition technology outlook 2013
The Data Acquisition Technology Outlook keeps you informed of the latest and future technologies being developed to improve how engineers and scientists acquire, analyze, and present data. With more than 35,000 companies around the world using NI tools, National Instruments has been leading the data acquisition market for over 30 years with innovative software and hardware for building data acquisition systems. Additionally, NI works closely with leading technology providers to ensure that NI data acquisition products incorporate the latest and greatest technologies. Using this ecosystem of customers and partners, NI created the outlook to highlight some of the most pressing trends and technology challenges engineers who build data acquisition systems face.
Featured content includes:
- Big analog data and data acquisition: differentiation is no longer about who can collect the most data, it’s about who can quickly make sense of the data they collect.
- Moore’s Law at work in data logging: with the digital world we live in becoming more complex, we are demanding more from the systems recording the physical and electrical phenomena of today and tomorrow.
- Emerging bus technologies: new bus technologies are poised to evolve data acquisition systems and address the challenges of future measurement applications.
- Mobile technology’s influence on data acquisition: mobile access to measurement applications is no longer a nice addition, it is an expectation.
Why choose an embedded system for your next application
Many system integrators and end customers continue to choose standard PC platforms for certain types of embedded applications. Standard PCs of the past did have some advantages over custom designed embedded platforms, especially for applications that required “PC-like” performance and capabilities at a low off-the-shelf cost. However, they now have hidden costs as the embedded technology landscape is changing dramatically and today’s high performance, low power embedded platforms, like those being enabled by AMD, offer low risk, and superior TCO for long-lifecycle applications.
Car2x: how automotive OEMs and suppliers are successfully completing production Car2x projects
Car2x systems present entirely new challenges for managers in product development departments. For one, the Car2x ECU under study must communicate with a large number of vehicles and beacons in its environment. This increases the number of information exchanges and their complexity compared to previous network development in production vehicles. For another, IP standards have now made their way into the vehicle; however, this is uncharted territory for most developers using the IEEE 802.11p air interface. These challenges can already be overcome with tools that are adapted to this interface.
Test bench for complex ECU networks: verification of object-recognition algorithms
ECU tests may be very complex depending on the work area and the range of functional features. This is even more relevant when testing must cover a network of five to nine ECUs whose functionalities are inseparably intertwined and vary according to the vehicle type, features and special customer wishes. That is why EvoBus has started up a new component test bench based on the VT System from Vector. Its flexible, automated tests enable a high level of test coverage and precise reproducibility of all test cases.
Simulation of coupled electromagnetic/thermal systems using CAE software
Electromagnetic induction heating occurs in electrically conducting materials when they are in the presence of time varying magnetic fields. This phenomenon is utilized in a wide range of industrial applications.
Simulating induction heating effects using Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) software requires the solution of both electromagnetic and thermal field distributions. Often a transient solution is required to determine the temperature distribution as a function of time, and this can be complicated by the characteristic wide disparity between the time constants of the electrical and thermal systems.
This paper will illustrate examples of coupled electromagnetic/thermal field simulations for both steady-state and transient conditions.
The complete guide to building a measurement system: download this 10-part tutorial from NI
Download this how-to guide from National Instruments that covers everything you should consider when building your data acquisition (DAQ) system. Compared to traditional measurement systems, PC-based DAQ systems, consisting of sensors, DAQ measurement hardware and software, exploit the processing power, productivity, display and connectivity capabilities of industry-standard computers, providing more a powerful, flexible and cost-effective measurement solution.
Managing AUTOSAR development with IBM Rationale software
Most of the innovative functions integrated into today’s vehicles are delivered through the electric and electronic systems or E/E systems for short. E/E systems are composed of dozens of electronic control units with millions of lines of code running on them. Standardising the development of the electronic control units represents a great opportunity for the industry to achieve efficiencies and cost savings to promote innovation, research and development. A systems engineering approach based on the IBM Rationale software platform for automotive systems can help your organisation achieve significant advantages. This paper reviews opportunities in this field.
ISO 26262 Functional Safety
Work on ISO 26262 Functional Safety – Road Vehicles became available to the public in 2009 and is the latest standard for functional safety in the automotive domain. However, functional safety is not new to the industry as the IEC 61508 was the functional safety standard used for almost a decade. ISO 26262 is intended to be applied to one or more electric/electronic (E/E) systems that are installed in series production passenger vehicles with a maximum gross weight of up to 3.5 tons, although not commercial vehicles nor special vehicles, e.g. for disabled people. disabled people. For these kinds of vehicles IEC 61508 is still used.This white paper focuses on ISO 26262. For those who are familiar with IEC 61508, the new standard might look like old ideas in new packages. Experts in requirements engineering and requirements management may find that CMMI1 or SPICE2 are more precise in managing their requirements.
Modelling AUTOSAR systems with a UML/SysML profile
The AUTOSAR initiative aims to create standard core solutions that enable reuse and scalability of functional modules between platform variants. This Paper provides an overview of the fundamental concepts of AUTOSAR, such as the AUTOSAR System, AUTOSAR Software Components, the AUTOSAR Virtual Functional Bus, and the AUTOSAR Run Time Environments. The Paper also reviews details of a UML/SysML-based AUTOSAR profile for capturing the AUTOSAR System —including the interacting AUTOSAR Software Components — and discusses how using UML the AUTOSAR System Model can be extended to include effective model organisation, requirements capture, and behavioural/algorithm modelling.
Evolution of automotive system requirements increasing need for collaborative design management
To maintain schedule adherence and satisfy complex development requirements, engineering organisations are turning toward software and system lifecycle management solutions to promote efficiencies and synergies within their automotive systems development process. Standards like AUTOSAR and GENIVI (system development) and ISO 26262 (safety), are driving automotive system manufacturers to improve their development processes. Key foci of this Paper include: Trends in automotive software/system engineering, and comparison to other embedded industries; How process standardisation is influencing re-evaluation of tooling strategies; How system complexity is driving adoption of software and system modelling tools; How convergent evolution of system design solutions enables greater automation synergies.
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